:: Volume 6, Issue 3 (Vol6 No3 Fall 2019 - 2019) ::
jcmh 2019, 6(3): 200-214 Back to browse issues page
The Effectiveness of Play Therapy on Reading Performance, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral Problems in Students with Dyslexia
Roghayeh Karimi Lichahi , Alma Azarian, Bahman Akbari
Rasht Branch, Islamic Azad University, Rasht, Iran
Abstract:   (2219 Views)
Background and Purpose: Dyslexia is one of the problems of students during their studies. This disorder has negative effects in various fields and impedes academic progress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of play therapy on reading performance, adaptive skills and behavioral problems in students with dyslexia.
Method: The present study was a quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest design and control group. The statistical population consisted of all students with dyslexia in Rasht city in the academic year 2016-2017, among them 30 students were selected by convenient sampling method and randomly divided into the experimental and control groups. Data were collected using the dyslexia test (Karami-Nouri & Moradi, 2008), Wechsler intelligence scale for children (1974), and social skills rating scale (Gersham and Elliot, 1990). The intervention program was administered to the experimental group during 10 sessions for 2 months and the control group did not receive this intervention. Statistical analysis of covariance was used for data analysis.
Results: The results of covariance analysis showed that play therapy significantly improved the components of reading performance and adaptive skills as well as reducing behavioral problems in the experimental group (P <0.001).
Conclusion: Based on the results of the present study, it can be concluded that play therapy provides an effective framework for further learning by linking perceptual skills with motor information and generalizing it to the environment.
Keywords: Dyslexia, play therapy, reading performance, adaptive skills, behavioral problems
Full-Text [PDF 836 kb]   (51 Downloads)    
Type of Study: Research | Subject: Special
Received: 2018/04/22 | Accepted: 2018/08/19 | Published: 2019/11/11
1. American Psychological Association. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-5. Amer Psychiatric Pub; 2013. [Link] [DOI:10.1176/appi.books.9780890425596]
2. Ahrami R., Shoshtari M., Golshani F., Kamarzarin H. Effectiveness of precision teaching on reading ability of students with Reading learning disability. Psychology of Exceptional Individuals. 2011; 1(3): 139-152. [Persian]. [Link]
3. Evans SW, Mullett E, Weist MD, Franz K. Feasibility of the mindmatters school mental health promotion program in American schools. J Youth Adolesc. 2005; 34(1): 51-58. [Link] [DOI:10.1007/s10964-005-1336-9]
4. Bills RE. Nondirective play therapy with retarded readers. J Consult Psychol. 1950; 14(2): 140-149. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/h0059850]
5. Morgan J, Robinson D, Aldridge J. Parenting stress and externalizing child behaviour. Child Fam Soc Work. 2002; 7(3): 219-225. [Link] [DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2206.2002.00242.x]
6. Schalock RL, Luckasson RA, Shogren KA, Borthwick-Duffy S, Bradley V, Buntinx WHE, et al. The renaming of mental retardation: understanding the change to the term intellectual disability. Intellect Dev Disabil. 2007; 45(2): 116-124. [Link] [DOI:10.1352/1934-9556(2007)45[116:TROMRU]2.0.CO;2]
7. Kazemtarghi M, Keshavarzi Arshadi F, Salehi M. The comparison of primary verbal, nonverbal and mathematical concept formation in 4-6-year-old children with normal and impaired hearing. Bimonthly Audiology - Tehran University of Medical Sciences. 2011; 20(1): 9-15. [Persian]. [Link]
8. Jones A, Hardman CA, Lawrence N, Field M. Cognitive training as a potential treatment for overweight and obesity: A critical review of the evidence. Appetite. 2018; 124: 50-67. [Link] [DOI:10.1016/j.appet.2017.05.032]
9. Pedro-Carroll JL, Jones SH. A preventive play intervention to foster children's resilience in the aftermath of divorce. In: Reddy LA, Files-Hall TM, Schaefer CE, editor. Empirically based play interventions for children. Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association; 2005, pp: 51-75. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/11086-004]
10. Nurcombe B, Wooding S, Marrington P, Bickman L, Roberts G. Child sexual abuse II: Treatment. Aust N Z J Psychiatry. 2000; 34(1): 92-97. [Link] [DOI:10.1046/j.1440-1614.2000.00643.x]
11. Hayati M, Smaeeli Far N, Nikroo M, Faramarzi E. Effectiveness of child-centered play therapy in the decrease of aggression among 5-to-10-year-old children. International Journal of psychology and behavioral research. 2014; 3(4): 308-316. [Link]
12. Ganji K, Zabihi R, Khoda-Bakhsh R, Kraskian A. The impact of child-centered play therapy on reduction of behavioral symptoms of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Journal of Clinical Psychology. 2011; 3(4): 15-25. [Persian]. [Link]
13. Karamali Esmaili S, Shafaroodi N, Hassani Mehraban A, Parand A, Zarei M, Akbari-Zardkhaneh S. Effect of play-based therapy on meta-cognitive and behavioral aspects of executive function: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial on the students with learning disabilities. Basic Clin Neurosci. 2017; 8(3): 203-212. [Link] [DOI:10.18869/nirp.bcn.8.3.203]
14. Niknasab F, Hemayattalab R, Sheikh M, Houmaniyan D. The effectiveness of play therapy on symptoms of children with attention deficit - hyperactivity disorder. International Journal of Sport Studies. 2016; 6(6): 350-358. [Link]
15. Robinson A, Simpson C, Hott BL. The effects of child-centered play therapy on the behavioral performance of three first grade students with ADHD. International Journal of Play Therapy. 2017; 26(2): 73-83. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/pla0000047]
16. Jafari N, Mohammadi MR, Khanbani M, Farid S, Chiti P. Effect of play therapy on behavioral problems of maladjusted preschool children. Iran J Psychiatry. 2011; 6(1): 37-42. [Link]
17. Haapala EA, Poikkeus A-M, Tompuri T, Kukkonen-Harjula K, Leppänen PHT, Lindi V, et al. Associations of motor and cardiovascular performance with academic skills in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014; 46(5): 1016-1024. [Link] [DOI:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000186]
18. Chinekesh A, Kamalian M, Eltemasi M, Chinekesh S, Alavi M. The effect of group play therapy on social-emotional skills in pre-school children. Glob J Health Sci. 2013; 6(2): 163-167. [Link] [DOI:10.5539/gjhs.v6n2p163]
19. Sarpoulaki B, Kolahi P. Role of play therapy on aggression and learning disabilities in students: a quasi-experimental design. In: IJIP.In. The International Journal of Indian Psychology, Volume 3, Issue 4, No. 57. RED'SHINE Publication. Inc; 2016, pp: 12-22. [Link]
20. Hassani R, Mirzaeeian B, Khalilian A. Effectiveness of cognitive behavior-based play therapy on anxiety and self-steem of children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) children. Journal of Modern Psychological Researches. 2013; 8(29): 163-180. [Persian]. [Link]
21. HosseinKhanzadeh AA. The effect of child-centered play therapy on the self-efficacy in peer relations among students with oppositional defiant disorder symptoms. Quarterly Journal of Child Mental Health. 2017; 4(3): 49-59. [Persian]. [Link]
22. Shalani B, Azadimanesh P. The comparison of efficacy of group art therapy and puppet play therapy on the social skills of children with attention deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Quarterly Journal of Child Mental Health. 2016; 2(4): 103-112. [Persian]. [Link]
23. Akbari B, Rahmati F. The efficacy of cognitive behavioral play therapy on the reduction of aggression in preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Quarterly Journal of Child Mental Health. 2015; 2(2): 93-100. [Persian]. [Link]
24. Ali Nejad A, Safarour SN. Influence of playing games on improving reading and writing disorder in primary children. International Conference on New Horizons in Educational Sciences, Psychology and social harm, Society of Modern Horizons of Science and Technology, Tehran, 2016. [Persian]. [Link]
25. Sabet Imani M. The effectiveness of therapeutic game based on cognitive-behavioral approach on behavioral problems (emotional, anxious and social, and aggressive behavior) of elementary students in Neyshabur City [Ph.D. Thesis]. [Ahvaz, Iran]: Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz; 2013. [Persian]. [Link]
26. Perry LH. Play therapy behavior of maladjusted and adjusted children [PHD thesis]. [US]: ProQuest Information & Learning; 1989. [Link]
27. Meany-Walen KK, Teeling S. Adlerian play therapy with students with externalizing behaviors and poor social skills. International Journal of Play Therapy. 2016; 25(2): 64-77. [Link] [DOI:10.1037/pla0000022]
28. El-Nagger NS, Abo-Elmagd MH, Ahmed HI. Effect of applying play therapy on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Nurs Educ Pract. 2017; 7(5): 104. [Link] [DOI:10.5430/jnep.v7n5p104]
29. Khaledi S, Validi Pak A, Mirkhan I, Atai M. The positive impact of play therapy on writing performance of students with dysgraphia. International Journal of School Health. 2014; 1(2): e22655. [Link] [DOI:10.17795/intjsh-22655]
30. Khadyavi Zand Z, Agha Mohamadiyan Sherbaf H, Asghari Nekah SM. The effect of group therapy on reducing aggression in preschool children. First National Conference on Research and Therapy in Clinical Psychology, Azad University of Torbat Jam; 2012. [Persian]. [Link]
31. Nazari S, Kooti E, Saiahi H. Learning disorder diagnostic criteria in the revised intelligence standard and wechsler's children. Exceptional Education. 2012; 1(109): 36-45. [Persian]. [Link]
32. Yahyazadeh A. Hossein khanzadeh AA. The Effectiveness of Story Reading in Increasing the Reading Motivation of Students with Dyslexia. Psychology of Exceptional Individuals. 2015; 5(20): 39-54. [Persian].[Link].
33. Karami Nouri R, Moradi AR, Akbari Zardkhaneh S, Zahedian H. Reading and dyslexia test. Tehran: Jahad daneshgahi; 2009. [Persian].
34. Hosaini M, Moradi A, Kormi Nouri R, Hassani J, Parhoon H. Reliability and Validity of Reading and Dyslexia Test (NEMA). Advances in Cognitive Sceince. 2016; 18(1): 22-34. [Persian]. [Link].
35. Ahangar Ghorbani Z. The effectiveness of teaching executive actions on social skills and behavioral disorders in dyslexic students [Master's Thesis]. [Guilan, Iran]: University of Guilan; 2013. [Persian]. [Link]
36. Rezayi S, Lari lavasani M.The Relationship between motor skills and social skills and Challenging behaviors in children with autism spectrum disorder. Quarterly of Psychology of Exceptional Individuals. 2017; 7(25): 19-33. [Persian].[Link].
37. Naderi EA, Seif Naraghi M. Learning disorders. Tehran: Arasbaran; 2016. [Persian].
38. Jensen E. Brain-based learning: a reality check. Educational Leadership. 2000; 57(7): 76-80. [Link]

XML   Persian Abstract   Print

Volume 6, Issue 3 (Vol6 No3 Fall 2019 - 2019) Back to browse issues page